30 new words a day: 01.27.16

  1. womb – the ​organ in the ​body of a woman or other ​female ​mammal in which a ​baby ​develops before ​birth:
    Researchers are ​looking at how a mother’s ​health can ​affect the ​baby in the womb.
  2. prevalent – adj. common or widespread
    These ​diseases are more prevalent among ​young ​children.
    Trees are ​dying in ​areas where ​acid ​rain is most prevalent.
  3. repellent – n. serving or tending to drive away or ward off – often used in combination (a mosquito repellent spray)
  4. sanction – an ​official ​order, such as the ​stopping of ​trade, that is taken against a ​country in ​order to make it ​obey ​international ​law:
    The U.S. is reportedly a supporter of stronger international sanctions.
    Many ​nations have ​imposed sanctions on the ​country because of ​its ​attacks on ​its own ​people.
    Trade/​economic sanctions will only be ​lifted (= ​stopped) when the ​aggressor ​nation ​withdraws ​its ​troops.
  5. Dispute – an ​argument or ​disagreement, ​especially an ​official one between, for ​example, ​workers and ​employers or two ​countrieswith a ​common ​border:
    Wang and Kerry also discussed territorial disputes in the South China Sea.
    a ​bitter/​long-running disputea ​border disputea ​pay/​legal/​trade dispute.
    They have been ​unable to ​settle/​resolve the dispute over ​working​conditions.The ​unions are in dispute with ​management over ​pay.

  1. politburo – the ​main ​government ​group in a ​Communist ​country, which makes all the ​important ​decisions
    The 71-year-old Trong pushed back a challenge to a seat on the 19-member ruling politburo from PrimeMinister Nguyen Tan Dung.
  2. violation – an ​action that ​breaks or ​acts against something, ​especially a ​law, ​agreement, ​principle, or something that should be ​treatedwith ​respect:
    He ​claimed that the way he’d been ​treated was a ​gross violation ofhis ​civil/​constitutional/​human ​rights.The ​takeover of the ​embassy ​constitutes a ​flagrant/​blatant violation of ​international ​law.It was ​clear that they had not ​acted in violation of the ​rules.
  3. beam –
    Find out what it it; then stay right on the beam.
  4. startling – ​surprising and sometimes ​worrying:
    Do something startling, surprising.
    startling ​resultsHe made some startling ​admissions about his past.
  5. jag – a ​short ​period when someone ​behaves in a ​particular way and ​finds it ​difficult to ​stop:
    I was having an emotional jag.
    a ​crying/​sneezing/​coughing jag
  6. futile – (of ​actions) having no ​effect or ​achieving nothing:
    How utterly futile and ridiculous that trip would have been,” I said to myself.
    Attempts to get ​supplies to the ​region are futile because ​troops will not ​allow the ​aid ​convoy to ​enter the ​city.It‘s ​completely futile ​trying to ​reason with him – he just won’t ​listen.All my ​attempts to ​cheer her up ​proved futile.
  7. fatal -very ​serious and having an ​important ​bad ​effect in the future:
    I felt as though it would be fatal to be persistent.
    He made the fatal ​mistake/​error of ​believing what they told him.It just ​shows how you should never say how well things are going for you – it’s fatal (= it ​causes ​bad things to ​happen).
  8. perpetuation –
    Two weeks later, I presented a plan to him and his two associates for the perpetuation and protection of their business.
  9. abrupt – ​sudden and ​unexpected, and often ​unpleasant:
    When another asserted something that I thought in error, I deny’d myself the pleasure of contracting him abruptly, and of showing immediately some absurdity in his propositions.
    n abrupt ​change/​movementOur ​conversation came to an abrupt end when George ​burst into the ​room.The ​road ​ended in an abrupt (= ​sudden and very ​steep) ​slope down to the ​sea.
  10. assert – to ​behave in a way that ​expresses ​your ​confidence, ​importance, or ​power and ​earns you ​respect from ​others:
    I really must assert myself more in ​meetings.
  11. mortification – a ​feeling of being very ​embarrassed:
    I had less mortification when I was found to be in wrong and I more easily prevailed with others to give up their mistakes and join with me when I happened to be in the right.
    To the mortification of the show’s ​organizers, the ​top ​performer​withdrew at the last ​minute.
  12. pantomime –  the ​art or ​act of ​expressing ​thoughts and ​emotions with ​movement ​rather than ​speech; ​mime
    The master of ceremonies went back and finally made the Swede understand by pantomime that they wanted him to go up and hit the strong man.
  13. jury – a ​group of ​people who have been ​chosen to ​listen to all the ​facts in a ​trial in a ​law ​court and to ​decide if a ​person is ​guiltyor not ​guilty, or if a ​claim has been ​proved:
    members of the juryThe jury has/have been ​unable to ​return a ​verdict (= ​reach a ​decision).Police ​officers aren’t usually ​allowed to be/​sit/​serve on a jury.
  14. stag –
    Recently, I went down to Skyland, Virginia, on a stag party with a group of friends.
  15. cot- a ​light ​bed that can be ​folded so that it can be ​easily ​carried and ​stored
    We all slept on cots at night in a large, one-room cabin.
  16. shrewdest – adj. having or ​based on a ​clear ​understanding and good ​judgment of a ​situation, ​resulting in an ​advantage:
    The late J.Pierpont Morgan, Sr., one of the shrewdest business men in all history, once said: …
    [+ to infinitive] He was shrewd enough not to take the ​job when there was the ​possibility of getting a ​better one a few ​months ​later.She is a shrewd ​politician who ​wants to ​avoid ​offending the ​electorate ​unnecessarily.It was a shrewd ​move to ​buy ​your ​house just before ​property ​prices​started to ​rise.
  17. usher – to show someone where they should go, or to make someone go where you ​want them to go:
    When I arrived at the mill and was ushered into his office, I noticed that he didn’t seem quite so pleasant as usual.
    She ushered us into her ​office and ​offered us ​coffee.Officials ​quickly ushered the ​protesters out of the ​hall.
  18. scowl – to ​look at someone or something with a very ​annoyed​expression:
    The ​boy scowled at her and ​reluctantly ​followed her back into ​school.
  19. courtesy –  ​polite ​behaviour, or a ​polite ​action or ​remark:
    I find people regard it as a courtesy.
    He began squirming nervously in his chair.
    You might get along ​better with ​your ​parents if you ​showed them some courtesy.
    [+ to infinitive] He could at least have had the courtesy to say ​sorry.The ​president ​welcomed her ​visitors with the ​usual courtesies.
  20. squirming – ​to ​move from ​side to ​side in an ​awkward way because of ​nervousness, ​embarrassment, or ​pain:
    Nobody ​spoke for at least five ​minutes and Rachel squirmed in her ​chair with ​embarrassment.The ​fish squirmed on the ​ground for a few ​moments and then ​lay still.
  21. expectant – ​thinking that something ​pleasant or ​exciting is going to ​happen:
    We looked at each other in an expectant manner.
    the children’s expectant ​faces
  22. outwitted – to get an ​advantage over someone by ​acting more ​cleverly and often by using a ​trick:
    We all hate to be outsmarted, outwitted, interrupted, or cut off before we finish, by some flannelmouth who knows what we are going to say before we say it.
    In the ​story, the ​cunning ​fox outwits the ​hunters.
  23. gear –
    He throws his mouth into high gear before his brain is turning over, explains to you where and why you are mistaken, and straightens you out before you can make yourself clear.
  24. cocksure –  too ​confident, in a way that is ​slightly ​unpleasant or ​rude:
    As a young man, Benjamin Franklin was cocksure and wanted to do most of the talking, telling people where they were wrong until they crossed on the other side of the street to avoid him.
    a cocksure ​young man
  25. languish – to ​exist in an ​unpleasant or ​unwanted ​situation, often for a ​long​time:
    After languishing in ​obscurity for many ​years, her early ​novels have ​recently been ​rediscovered.He has been languishing in ​jail for the past 20 ​years.The ​ruling ​party is languishing in third ​place in the ​opinion ​polls.
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