- Indicate – v. to show, point, or make clear in another way:
Exploratory investigations have indicated large amounts of oil below the sea bed.
[+ question word] Please indicate which free gift you would like to receive.
[+ (that)] She indicated to me (that) she didn’t want me to say anything.
- Squirm – to make twisting movements with the body, esp. because of embarrassment, pain, or excitement:
The kids squirmed in their chairs.
– to move from side to side in an awkward way because of nervousness, embarrassment, or pain:
Nobody spoke for at least five minutes and Rachel squirmed in her chair with embarrassment.
The fish squirmed on the ground for a few moments and then laystill.
- Grudge – a strong feeling of anger and dislike for a person who you feel has treated you badly, especially one that lasts for a long time:
I don’t bear any grudge against you.
Amanda still has/holds a grudge against me for refusing to lend her that money.
- Rotting – to (cause something to) decay: The fruit had been left to rot on the trees.
Rain has got in and rotted (away) the woodwork.
the smell of rotting fruit
- Decay – to (cause something to) become gradually damaged, worse, or less:
Sugar makes your teeth decay.
The role of the extended family has been decaying for some time.
Pollution has decayed the surface of the stonework on the front of the cathedral.
the smell of decaying meat
- Flunk out – to have to leave school or college because your work is not good enough: Dan won’t be in college next year – he flunked out.
- Triumph – a very great success, achievement, or victory (= when you wina war, fight, or competition), or a feeling of great satisfaction or pleasure caused by this:
The book celebrates the hostages’ remarkable triumph overappalling adversity.
The signing of the agreement was a personal triumph for the primeminister.
It was the Republican Party’s third election triumph in a row.
The eradication of smallpox by vaccination was one of medicine’s greatest triumphs.
- Bombard – to attack a place with continuous shooting or bombs:
The troops bombarded the city, killing and injuring hundreds.
- Assassinate –to kill someone famous or important:
a plot to assassinate the president
- Doctrine – a belief or set of beliefs, especially political or religious ones, that are taught and accepted by a particular group:
The president said he would not go against sound military doctrine.
- Ponder – to think carefully about something, especially for a noticeablelength of time:
She sat back for a minute to ponder her next move in the game.
- Strive – to try very hard to do something or to make something happen, especially for a long time or against difficulties:
[+ to infinitive] Mr Roe has kindled expectations that he must now strive to live up to.
In her writing she strove for a balance between innovation and familiar prose forms.
- Scrutiny – (public scrutiny) – the careful and detailed examination of something in order to get information about it:
The government’s record will be subjected to/come under (close)scrutiny in the weeks before the election.
- Throb – to produce a strong, regular beat:
Both records have a good throbbing bass which is great to dance to.
- Vital – adj. (important) necessary for the success or continued existence of something; extremely important:
A strong opposition is vital to a healthy democracy.
She had found out some information of vital importance.
The kidney plays a vital role/part in the removal of waste productsfrom the blood.
[+ that] It’s absolutely vital that you do exactly as I say.
[+ to infinitive] It is vital to get medical supplies to the area as soonas possible.
- Abolish – (slavery abolished) – to end an activity or custom officially:
I think bullfighting should be abolished.
National Service was abolished in the UK in 1962.
- Perilous – extremely dangerous:
The country roads are quite perilous.
- Gallantly – adj. (polite) formal (of a man) polite and kind towards women, especiallywhen in public:
That wasn’t very gallant of you, Paul, pushing a young lady out of the way like that!
- Abysmal – very bad:
abysmal working conditions
The food was abysmal.
The standard of the students’ work is abysmal.
- Grave(ly) – seriously bad:
a grave situation
- Cripple – v. to injure someone so that they are unable to walk or move in a normal way
– to cause serious damage to someone or something, making him, her, or it weak and not effective:
a country crippled by war
- Adequate – enough or satisfactory for a particular purpose:
Have we got adequate food for 20 guests?I didn’t have adequate time to prepare.
It’s not a big salary but it’s adequate for our needs.
The council’s provision for the elderly is barely adequate (= is not enough).
[+ to infinitive] Will future oil supplies be adequate to meet worldneeds?
- Hew – to cut a large piece out of rock, stone, or another hard materialin a rough way:
The monument was hewn out of the side of a mountain.
- Agrarian (republic) – relating to the land, especially the use of land for farming:
This is prime agrarian land.– An agrarian place or country makes its money from farmingrather than industry:
This part of the country is mainly agrarian.
- Fervent – used to describe beliefs that are strongly and sincerely felt or people who have strong and sincere beliefs:
a fervent supporter of the communist partyIt is his fervent hope that a peaceful solution will soon be found.
- Affluence – the state of having a lot of money and possessions:
This period saw the increase of real wages and affluence in British society.
- Jurisprudence – the study of law and the principles on which law is based
- Transcend – to go further, rise above, or be more important or better than something, especially a limit:
The best films are those which transcend national or culturalbarriers.
The underlying message of the film is that love transcends everything else.
- Transcendent – greater, better, more important, or going past or above all others: transcendent power/beauty/love
He describes seeing Pelé play football as one of the transcendent moments of his life.
- Voyage – a long journey, especially by ship:
He was a young sailor on his first sea voyage.
(figurative)The first year of a loving relationship is a voyage (= period)of discovery.